Scientific Papers

A Growing Compilation of the Important Research and Published Scientific Papers Related to Metabolic Health

Energy expenditure and body composition changes after an isocaloric ketogenic diet in overweight and obese men

Kevin D Hall, Kong Y Chen, Juen Guo , Yan Y Lam, Rudolph L Leibel, Laurel ES Mayer, Marc L Reitman, Michael Rosenbaum, Steven R Smith, B Timothy Walsh, Eric Ravussin

Metabolic ward crossover with 17 subjects.  A logical consequence of the carbohydrate–insulin model is that decreasing the proportion of dietary carbohydrate to fat without altering protein or calories will reduce insulin secretion, increase fat mobilization from adipose tissue, and elevate the oxidation of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs).  For those participants following the Ketogenic Diet,…

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Effects of Low-Carbohydrate vs Low-Fat Diets on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Alain J. Nordmann, MD, MSc; Abigail Nordmann, BS; Matthias Briel, MD; Ulrich Keller, MD; William S. Yancy Jr, MD, MSH; Bonnie J. Brehm, PhD; Heiner C. Bucher, MD, MPH

Five trials including a total of 447 individuals.  This meta-analysis demonstrates that low-carbohydrate, non–energy-restricted diets appear to be at least as effective as low-fat, energy-restricted diets in inducing weight loss for up to 1 year. However, potential favorable changes in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values should be weighed against potential unfavorable changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol…

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Dynamics of intra-pericardial and extra-pericardial fat tissues during long-term, dietary induced, moderate weight loss

Gal Tsaban, Arik Wolak, Hila Avni-Hassid, Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Yaakov Henkin, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Lilac Tene, Hila Zelicha, Anat Yaskolka-Meir, Oded Komy, Avital Bilitzky, Yoash Chassidim, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher , Joachim Thiery, Dror Dicker, Assaf Rudich , Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai

RCT with 80 participants.  Moderate but persistent dietary-induced weight loss substantially decreased both IPF and EPF volumes.  Reduction of pericardial adipose tissues is independently associated with an improved lipid profile.  The Mediterranean diet, rich in unsaturated fats and restricted carbohydrates, is superior to an LF diet in terms of the IPF burden reduction.

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A very low calorie ketogenic diet improves weight loss and quality of life in patients with adjustable gastric banding.

Taus M , Fumelli D , Busni D , Borroni F , Sebastianelli S , Nicolai G , Nicolai A

Non-randomized 2 arm prospective with 20 participants.  KD can improve the weight loss and quality of life in patients who underwent LAGB and failed at losing more weight allowing a weight loss comparable to that obtained with a further calibration and it is useful to to avoid drastic calibrations and their collateral effects

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Twelve-month outcomes of a randomized trial of a moderate-carbohydrate versus very lowcarbohydrate diet in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes

Laura R. Saslow, Jennifer J. Daubenmier, Judith T. Moskowitz, Sarah Kim, Elizabeth J. Murphy, Stephen D. Phinney, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Veronica Goldman, Rachel M. Cox, Ashley E. Mason, Patricia Moran & Frederick M. Hecht

RCT with 34 particpants.  The results suggest that adults with prediabetes or noninsulin-dependent type 2 diabetes may be able to improve glycemic control with less medication by following an ad libitum very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet compared to a moderate-carbohydrate, calorie-restricted low-fat diet. Additional research should examine both clinical outcomes and adherence beyond 12 months.

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A Novel Intervention Including Individualized Nutritional Recommendations Reduces Hemoglobin A1c Level, Medication Use, and Weight in Type 2 Diabetes

Amy L McKenzie, PhD ; Sarah J Hallberg, DO, MS ; Brent C Creighton, PhD ; Brittanie M Volk, RD, PhD ; Theresa M Link, RD, CDE ; Marcy K Abner, RD ; Roberta M Glon, RN, BSN ; James P McCarter, MD, PhD ; Jeff S Volek, RD, PhD ; Stephen D Phinney, MD, PhD

This study, non-randomized parallel arm prospective with 262 participants, demonstrates an individualized program delivered and supported remotely that incorporates nutritional ketosis can be highly effective in improving glycemic control and weight loss in adults with T2D while significantly decreasing medication use.

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Can a Low-Carbohydrate Diet Improve Exercise Tolerance in McArdle Disease?

Reason SL, Westman EC, Godfrey R, Maguire E

A carbohydrate-restricted diet may provide patients with McArdle disease with a consistent energy substrate for working muscles, thereby reducing the risk of muscle damage and threat of renal failure. Further research on the use of a LCKD in McArdle disease is warranted.  

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Management of Type 1 Diabetes With a Very Low–Carbohydrate Diet

Belinda S. Lennerz, Anna Barton, Richard K. Bernstein, R. David Dikeman, Carrie Diulus, Sarah Hallberg, Erinn T. Rhodes, Cara B. Ebbeling, Eric C. Westman, William S. Yancy Jr, David S. Ludwig

To evaluate glycemic control among children and adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who consume a very low–carbohydrate diet (VLCD).

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Neuro-protective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet

Maciej Gasior, Michael A. Rogawski, and Adam L. Hartman

The ketogenic diet has been in clinical use for over 80 years, primarily for the symptomatic treatment of epilepsy. A recent clinical study has raised the possibility that exposure to the ketogenic diet may confer long-lasting therapeutic benefits for patients with epilepsy. Moreover, there is evidence from uncontrolled clinical trials and studies in animal models…

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Effects of a ketogenic diet on tumor metabolism and nutritional status in pediatric oncology patients: two case reports

Nebeling LC, Miraldi F, Shurin SB, Lerner E.

Establish dietary-induced ketosis in pediatric oncology patients to determine if a ketogenic state would decrease glucose availability to certain tumors, thereby potentially impairing tumor metabolism without adversely affecting the patient’s overall nutritional status.

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