Scientific Papers

A Growing Compilation of the Important Research and Published Scientific Papers Related to Metabolic Health

Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in obese patients

Hussein M Dashti, MD PhD FICS FACS, Thazhumpal C Mathew, MSc PhD FRCPath, Talib Hussein, MB ChB, Sami K Asfar, MB ChB MD FRCSEd FACS, Abdulla Behbahani, MB ChB FRCS FACSI PhD FICS FACS, Mousa A Khoursheed, MB ChB FRCS FICS, Hilal M Al-Sayer, MD PhD FICS FACS, Yousef Y Bo-Abbas, MD FRCPC, and Naji S Al-Zaid, BSc PhD

To determine the effects of a 24-week ketogenic diet (consisting of 30 g carbohydrate, 1 g/kg body weight protein, 20% saturated fat, and 80% polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat) in obese patients.

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Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance Are Altered by Maintenance on a Ketogenic Diet

Kimberly P. Kinzig, Mary Ann Honors, and Sara L. Hargrave

Low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets (KD) are frequently implemented in efforts to reduce or maintain body weight, although the metabolic effects of long-term exposure to this type of diet remain controversial. This study assessed the responsiveness to peripheral and central insulin, glucose tolerance, and meal-induced effects of consuming a KD in the rat.

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Treatment of diabetes and diabetic complications with a ketogenic diet

Mobbs CV, Mastaitis J, Isoda F, Poplawski M

Accumulating evidence suggests that low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets are safe and effective to reduce glycemia in diabetic patients without producing significant cardiovascular risks. Most of these studies have been carried out specifically restricting carbohydrates, which tends to lead to increased protein intake, thus reducing the ketosis. However, diets that limit protein as well as carbohydrates, entailing…

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Clinical review: Ketones and brain injury

Hayden White and Balasubramanian Venkatesh

Although much feared by clinicians, the ability to produce ketones has allowed humans to withstand prolonged periods of starvation. At such times, ketones can supply up to 50% of basal energy requirements. More interesting, however, is the fact that ketones can provide as much as 70% of the brain’s energy needs, more efficiently than glucose.

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Ketones suppress brain glucose consumption

LaManna JC, Salem N, Puchowicz M, Erokwu B, Koppaka S, Flask C, Lee Z.

The brain is dependent on glucose as a primary energy substrate, but is capable of utilizing ketones such as beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta HB) and acetoacetate (AcAc), as occurs with fasting, prolonged starvation or chronic feeding of a high fat/low carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet). In this study, the local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose consumption (CMRglu; microM/min/100g)…

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Ketosis proportionately spares glucose utilization in brain

Zhang Y, Kuang Y, Xu K, Harris D, Lee Z, LaManna J, Puchowicz MA.

The brain is dependent on glucose as a primary energy substrate, but is capable of utilizing ketones such as β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, as occurs with fasting, starvation, or chronic feeding of a ketogenic diet. The relationship between changes in cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRglc) and degree or duration of ketosis remains uncertain. To investigate…

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Dietary ketosis enhances memory in mild cognitive impairment

Krikorian R, Shidler MD, Dangelo K, Couch SC, Benoit SC, Clegg DJ.

We randomly assigned 23 older adults with mild cognitive impairment to either a high carbohydrate or very low carbohydrate diet. Following the 6-week intervention period, we observed improved verbal memory performance for the low carbohydrate subjects (p = 0.01) as well as reductions in weight (p < 0.0001), waist circumference (p < 0.0001), fasting glucose…

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Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adults.

Reger MA, Henderson ST, Hale C, Cholerton B, Baker LD, Watson GS, Hyde K, Chapman D, Craft S.

Glucose is the brain’s principal energy substrate. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), there appears to be a pathological decrease in the brain’s ability to use glucose.  Neurobiological evidence suggests that ketone bodies are an effective alternative energy substrate for the brain.  Elevation of plasma ketone body levels through an oral dose of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs)…

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Effects of exogenous ketone supplementation on blood ketone, glucose, triglyceride, and lipoprotein levels in Sprague–Dawley rats

Shannon L. Kesl*, Angela M. Poff, Nathan P. Ward1, Tina N. Fiorelli1, Csilla Ari, Ashley J. Van Putten, Jacob W. Sherwood, Patrick Arnold and Dominic P. D’Agostino

Nutritional ketosis induced by the ketogenic diet (KD) has therapeutic applications for many disease states.  We hypothesized that oral administration of exogenous ketone supplements could produce sustained nutritional ketosis (>0.5 mM) without carbohydrate restriction.

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Statin wars: have we been misled about the evidence? A narrative review

Dr Maryanne Demasi PhD

Statins are the most widely prescribed, cholesterol lowering drugs in the world.  Despite the expiration of their patents, revenue for statins is expected to rise, with total sales on track to reach an estimated US$1 trillion by 2020.  A bitter dispute has erupted among doctors over suggestions that statins should be prescribed to millions of…

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