Scientific Papers

A Growing Compilation of the Important Research and Published Scientific Papers Related to Metabolic Health

Fasting Lipoprotein and Postprandial Triacylglycerol Responses to a Lowcarbohydrate Diet Supplemented With n-3 Fatty Acids

Jeff S. Volek, PhD, RD; Ana L. Gómez , MS; William J. Kraemer , PhD

Single arm prospective with 10 Participants:  A hypocaloric low-carbohydrate diet rich in MUFA and supplemented with n-3 fatty acids significantly reduced postabsorptive and postprandial TG in men that were not hypertriglyceridemic as a group before the diet.  This may be viewed as a clinically significant positive adaptation in terms of cardiovascular risk status.

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Effect of 6-month Adherence to a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Program

Eric C Westman, MD, MHS; William S Yancy, MD; Joel S Edman, DSc; Keith F Tomlin; Christine E Perkins, MSW

Single arm prospective with 51 participants:  In these subjects, the mean body weight decreased 10.3% +/- 5.9% from baseline to 6 months. The mean percentage of body weight that was fat decreased 2.9% +/- 3.2% from baseline to 6 months. Serum total cholesterol level decreased 11 +/- 26 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level decreased 10…

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Body Composition and Hormonal Responses to a Carbohydrate-restricted Diet

Jeff S. Volek; Matthew J. Sharman; Dawn M. Love; Neva G. Avery; Ana L. G[oacute]mez; Timothy P. Scheett; William J. Kraemer

Single arm propective with 12 participants:  Authors conclude that a carbohydrate-restricted diet resulted in a significant reduction in fat mass and a concomitant increase in lean body mass in normal-weight men, which may be partially mediated by the reduction in circulating insulin concentrations.

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Results of Use of Metformin and Replacement of Starch With Saturated Fat in Diets of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

James H. Hays; Robert T. Gorman; K. M. M. Shakir

Retrospective chart review:  Addition of saturated fat and removal of starch from a highmonounsaturated fat and starch-restricted diet improved glycemic control and were associated with weight loss without detectable adverse effects on serum lipids.

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An Isoenergetic Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Improves Serum HDL Cholesterol and Triacylglycerol Concentrations, the Total Cholesterol to HDL Cholesterol Ratio and Postprandial Pipemic Responses Compared With a Low Fat Diet in Normal Weight, Normolipidemic Women

Jeff S. Volek; Matthew J. Sharman; Ana L. Gómez; Timothy P. Scheett; William J. Kraemer

Ramdomized crossover with 10 participants:  In normal weight, normolipidemic women, a short-term very low carbohydrate diet modestly increased LDL-C, yet there were favorable effects on cardiovascular disease risk status by virtue of a relatively larger increase in HDL-C and a decrease in fasting and postprandial triaclyglycerols.

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Effects of a Lowcarbohydrate Diet on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factor in Overweight Adolescents

Stephen B. Sondike, MD; Nancy Copperman, MS, RD; Marc S. Jacobson, MD

RCT with 30 participants:  To compare the effects of a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet with those of a low-fat (LF) diet on weight loss and serum lipids in overweight adolescents. The LC group lost more weight (mean, 9.9 +/- 9.3 kg vs 4.1 +/- 4.9 kg) and had improvement in non-HDL cholesterol levels. There were no adverse…

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A Low-carbohydrate as Compared With a Lowfat Diet in Severe Obesity

Frederick F. Samaha, MD; Nayyar Iqbal, MD; Prakash Seshadri, MD; Kathryn L. Chicano, CRNP; Denise A. Daily, RD; Joyce McGrory, CRNP; Terrence Williams, BS; Monica Williams, BS; Edward J. Gracely, PhD; and Linda Stern, MD

RCT with 132 participants:  Severely obese subjects with a high prevalence of diabetes or the metabolic syndrome lost more weight during six months on a carbohydrate-restricted diet than on a calorie- and fatrestricted diet, with a relative improvement in insulin sensitivity and triglyceride levels, even after adjustment for the amount of weight lost.

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Clinical Use of a Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet to Treat the Dyslipidemia of the Metabolic Syndrome

Joseph T. Hickey; Lisa Hickey ; William S. YancyJr.; Juanita Hepburn; Eric C. Westman

Retrospective Cohort:  A carbohydrate-restricted diet recommendation led to improvements in lipid profiles and lipoprotein subclass traits of the metabolic syndrome in a clinical outpatient setting, and should be considered as a treatment for the metabolic syndrome.

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Effect of a High Saturated Fat and No-starch Diet on Serum Lipid Subfractions in Patients With Documented Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

James H. Hays, MD; Angela DiSabatino, RN, MS; Robert T. Gorman, PhD; Simi Vincent, PhD, MD; Michael E. Stillabower, MD

Prospective single arm:  To determine whether a diet of high saturated fat and avoidance of starch (HSF-SA) results in weight loss without adverse effects on serum lipids in obese nondiabetic patients.  HSF-SA diet results in weight loss after 6 weeks without adverse effects on serum lipid levels verified by nuclear magnetic resonance, and further weight loss…

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A Randomized Trial of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet for Obesity

Gary D. Foster, PhD; Holly R. Wyatt, MD; James O. Hill, PhD; Brian G. McGuckin, EdM; Carrie Brill, BS; B. Selma Mohammed, MD, PhD; Philippe O. Szapary, MD; Daniel J. Rader, MD; Joel S. Edman, DSc; Samuel Klein, MD

RCT with 63 participants:  The low-carbohydrate diet produced a greater weight loss (4%) than did the conventional diet for the first six months, but the differences were not significant at one year.  The lowcarbohydrate diet was associated with a greater improvement in some risk factors for coronary heart disease.

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